named after German pilot Max Immelmann who flew in WWI. The maneuver starts like the first half of a traditional vertical loop. When the train is near the loop's apex it will be inverted and heading back in the direction it entered. Rather than completing the loop in the traditional way, the train rolls on its axis becoming right-side-up while simultaneously turning away from the loop. The result is the train exiting the maneuver in the opposite direction it came. This is a very similar element to the Sidewinder. In the case of the Sidewinder the after apex turn is sharper and the maneuver is exited higher and nearly 90° to the right or left of direction it was entered. When a Immelmann is traveled in reverse it is called a Dive Loop.